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#5g RIGHTEOUS RECKONING - INCLUSIVE RECKONING ERROR REFUTED

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Introduction 5g
#5g1 King Jehoiachin Reigned Three Months in Jerusalem
#5g2 King David Reigned Seven Years in Hebron
#5g3 There was no Rain in Samaria for Three Years and Six Months
#5g4 Nehemiah was Appointed Governor in Judah for Twelve Years
#5g5 Solomon took Seven Years to Build the Temple
#5g6 The Law of the Leper
#5g7 Menahem Reigned Ten Years in Samaria
#5g8 Pekahiah Reigned for Two Years in Israel
#5g9 Conclusion on All of the Above Examples

Introduction 5g

The importance of this bible study can be measured by the number of people who believe that Jesus died on a Friday afternoon, and raised on Sunday morning. This they justify because they say that the bible uses a system of inclusive reckoning to establish time, and any part of Friday counts as a whole day, and any part of Sunday counts as a whole day. Therefore they explain that Jesus' "three days and three nights" (Matthew 12:40) is not literal, but has to be reckoned inclusively. This is totally false. This bible study investigates and refutes the claim of inclusive reckoning of time in scripture, and shows with many examples that inclusive reckoning was not "always used", and certainly not for the southern kingdom of Judah from which Jesus came. Therefore, there is no reason to treat Jesus' words as inclusive in terms of time.

#5g1 King Jehoiachin Reigned Three Months in Jerusalem

Hebrew Text - 2 KINGS 24:8 - English Translation
בֶּן-שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה, יְהוֹיָכִין בְּמָלְכוֹ, וּשְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים מָלַךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם; וְשֵׁם אִמּוֹ, נְחֻשְׁתָּא בַת-אֶלְנָתָן מִירוּשָׁלִָם. 8  Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he began to reign, and he reigned in Jerusalem three months. And his mother’s name was Nehushta, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem.

2 Chronicles 36:9
מוֹנֶה מִסְפָּר, לַכּוֹכָבִיםבֶּן-שְׁמוֹנֶה שָׁנִים, יְהוֹיָכִין בְּמָלְכוֹ, וּשְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים וַעֲשֶׂרֶת יָמִים, מָלַךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם; וַיַּעַשׂ הָרַע, בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה.  9  Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he began to reign, and he reigned three months and ten days in Jerusalem: and he did that which was evil in the sight of YHWH.

Note: Some bibles record Jehoiachin's age as eight in 2 Chronicles 36:9, and we have a possible reason for this in our bible study, find the missing words. The important thing to note here is that 2 Chronicles 36:9 records Jehoiachin's reign as three months and ten days. Now if inclusive reckoning had been used by the writer of 2 Kings 24:8, we would expect to see it rounded up to four months, or even rounded up to one year, but instead it is rounded down to three months, as we would expect with the accession year system, which is our equivalent to righteous reckoning. By this example the inclusive reckoning error is refuted.

#5g2 King David Reigned Seven Years in Hebron

2 SAMUEL 5:4-5
4 David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years.
5 In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months: and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty three years over all Israel and Judah.

1 KINGS 2:11
11 And the days that David reigned over Israel were forty years: seven years he reigned in Hebron, and thirty three years he reigned in Jerusalem.

1 CHRONICLES 3:4
4 These six were born to him (David) in Hebron; and there he reigned seven years and six months: and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty three years.

1 CHRONICLES 29:26-27
26 Thus David the son of Jesse reigned over all Israel.
27 And the time that he reigned over Israel was forty years; seven years reigned he in Hebron, and thirty three years reigned he in Jerusalem.

Note: Here we are told twice that David reigned for a total of Forty years. If we add the years and months together in 1 Samuel 5:5, and in 1 Chronicles 3:4, we get a total of forty years and six months. Now if inclusive time had been reckoned here the total would have come to forty one years, the extra six months counting as an extra year. So 2 Samuel 5:4 and 1 Kings 2:11 should have recorded David's total reign as forty one years, but they didn't.
If we count the time that David reigned in Hebron, both 2 Samuel 4:5 and 1 Chronicles 3:4 record seven years and six months. Now if inclusive reckoning had been used here, it would be rounded to eight years in other places, but instead it is recorded as seven years in both 1 Kings 2:11 and 1 Chronicles 29:27. Righteous reckoning, not inclusive reckoning, was used by the inspired writer who wrote these scriptures.

#5g3 There was no Rain in Samaria for Three Years and Six Months

Hebrew Text - 1 KINGS 17:1 - English Translation
וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ הַתִּשְׁבִּי מִתֹּשָׁבֵי גִלְעָד, אֶל-אַחְאָב, חַי-יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתִּי לְפָנָיו, אִם-יִהְיֶה הַשָּׁנִים הָאֵלֶּה טַל וּמָטָר-כִּי, אִם-לְפִי דְבָרִי.  1  And Elijah the Tishbite, who was of the inhabitants of Gilead, said to Ahab, As YHWH God of Israel lives, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years, but according to my word.

1 KINGS 18:1
וַיְהִי, יָמִים רַבִּים, וּדְבַר-יְהוָה הָיָה אֶל-אֵלִיָּהוּ, בַּשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁלִישִׁית לֵאמֹר: לֵךְ הֵרָאֵה אֶל-אַחְאָב, וְאֶתְּנָה מָטָר עַל-פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה.  1  And it came to pass after many days, that the word of YHWH came to Elijah in the third year, saying, Go, show yourself to Ahab; and I will send rain upon the earth.

Greek Text - LUKE 4:25 - English Translation
ἐπ᾽ ἀληθείας δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν πολλαὶ χῆραι ἦσαν ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἠλίου ἐν τῷ Ἰσραήλ ὅτε ἐκλείσθη ὁ οὐρανὸς ἐπὶ ἔτη τρία καὶ μῆνας ἕξ ὡς ἐγένετο λιμὸς μέγας ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν 25  But I tell you truly, many widows were in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, when great famine was throughout all the land;

JAMES 5:17
Ἠλίας ἄνθρωπος ἦν ὁμοιοπαθὴς ἡμῖν καὶ προσευχῇ προσηύξατο τοῦ μὴ βρέξαι καὶ οὐκ ἔβρεξεν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἐνιαυτοὺς τρεῖς καὶ μῆνας ἕξ 17  Elijah was a man subject to like passions as we are, and he prayed earnestly that it might not rain: and it did not rain on the earth for three years and six months.

Note: Elijah was a man of faith who prayed earnestly that it would not rain in Samaria, and the scriptures show that it did not rain for three and six months (Luke 4:25, James 5:17). However, it seems that God sent Elijah to end the drought "in the third year" (1 Kings 18:1), and there is no way that there was a six month period between this instruction being given and the rain coming. Now if inclusive reckoning had been used in calculating the time, then it should have said "in the fourth year", but it didn't. The inclusive reckoning error is refuted, and was therefore not used by the inspired writer who wrote these scriptures. Look at a comparison with the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus.

Cardinal Total TimeOrdinal time ends
Elijah - Period of no rain3 Years 6 months
Luke 4:25, James 5:17
in the 3rd year
1 Kings 18:1
Jesus - Death to resurrection After 3 days
Matthew 27:63, Mark 8:31
on the 3rd day
Matthew 16:21, Mark 9:31

Now these two examples are almost identical, except that Elijah's famine was measured in years, and Jesus death to resurrection was measured in days. Now the inclusive reckoners would have us to believe that Jesus was only dead from Friday 3 pm. to early Sunday morning; between 33 (3+24+6) and 38 (3+24+11) hours. This is much less than two whole 24 hour days. Would they also have us to believe that the famine in Samaria was also much less than 2 Years long, calculating on the same basis as they do for Jesus death to resurrection? Do not be deceived, both Jesus and James clearly stated it was three years and six months. The words for "three years and six months", and for "after three days", are all accusative case in the Greek, the case which deals with whole periods of time. Both Jesus and James therefore did not use inclusive reckoning when they timed the duration of Elijah's rain stoppage. There is no reason therefore to assume that Jesus was not dead for more than three whole days. Below is how the ordinal years compare with the actual years according to righteous reckoning. There are two ways of counting it. A period of three years and six months counts as anywhere above three years, five months and fifteen days, up to three years six and a half months. So three years five months and sixteen days would be rounded up to three years and six months by this method, giving us up to fourteen days to allow us to start just after the beginning of the seventh month, and end just before the end of the twelfth month in the third year. If the starting year was a thirteen month year this would give us an extra fifteen days, so righteous reckoning is perfectly acceptable in this situation.

Ordinal years with no rain   1st 2nd3rd
Actual Years with no rain 3 years 6 months arrowhead

#5g4 Nehemiah was Appointed Governor in Judah for Twelve Years

NEHEMIAH 5:14
14 Moreover from the time that I was appointed to be their governor in the land of Judah, from the twentieth year even to the thirty-second year of Artaxerxes the king, twelve years, I and my brothers have not eaten the bread of the governor.

Note: Here is an example where we are told a period of time using ordinals of the governorship of Nehemiah, and the time period in years. The count using inclusive reckoning looks like this:

Regnal year of Artaxerxes20th21st22nd 23rd24th25th26th 27th28th29th30th 31st32nd
Inclusive Years as Governor12345 678910111213
Exact Number of Years 12 year arrowhead

It seems as if Nehemiah was appointed to be governor by Artaxerxes at the beginning of his 20th year of reign, in the month Nisan (Nehemiah 2:1-8). If we include the twentieth year and the thirty second year in the count then it comes to thirteen years, but we are told in the same verse that it is only twelve years. Obviously the God inspired writer of this scripture did not use the method of inclusive reckoning in his count, this error is refuted.
Righteous reckoning would count the exact time of his governorship as twelve years (being able to extend up to twelve years and six months, and be rounded down) and could easily finish during Artaxerxes' thirty second regnal year.

#5g5 Solomon took Seven Years to Build the Temple

1 KINGS 6:1
1 And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of YHWH.

1 KINGS 6:27-38
37 In the fourth year was the foundation of the house of YHWH laid, in the month Zif:
38 And in the eleventh year, in the month Bul, which is the eighth month, was the house finished throughout all its parts, and according to all the fashion of it. So he was seven years in building it.

2 CHRONICLES 3:1-2
1 Then Solomon began to build the house of YHWH at Jerusalem in mount Moriah, where YHWH appeared to David his father, in the place that David had prepared in the threshing-floor of Ornan the Jebusite.
2 And he began to build in the second day of the second month, in the fourth year of his reign.

Note: Solomon began to build the temple in the second month of the fourth year of his reign, and finished it in the eighth month of the eleventh year of his reign. This is a total of seven years and six months. Now when it was recorded as a number of years, we would expect the years to be rounded up to eight with inclusive reckoning, and rounded down to seven with righteous reckoning. As 1 Kings 6:38 records the total time as seven years, we can see that the God inspired writer of these scriptures used righteous reckoning, not inclusive. If Solomon's eleventh year had twelve months, then the temple would have had to be finished in the first two days of the month. However, if Solomon's eleventh year was a thirteen month year, this would make half a year six months and fifteen days long, and so the temple would have to be finished in the first seventeen days of the eighth month. Both of these are obviously acceptable, but inclusive reckoning is an impossibility here.

Ordinal Year as King4th5th6th 7th8th9th10th11th
Inclusive Number of Years12345 678
Exact Number of Years 7 year 6 month arrowhead

#5g6 The Law of the Leper

LEVITICUS 13:4-7
4 If the bright spot is white in the skin of his flesh, and and appears to be not deeper than the skin, and its hair is not turned white; then the priest shall isolate him who has the plague seven days:
5 And the priest shall look on him the seventh day: and, behold, if the plague in his sight is as it was, and the plague has not spread in the skin; then the priest shall isolate him another seven days:
6 And the priest shall look on him again the seventh day: and, behold, if the plague has faded, and the plague has not spread in the skin, the priest shall pronounce him clean: it is but a scab: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean.
7 But if the scab spread much abroad in the skin, after that he has been seen of the priest for his cleansing, he shall be seen of the priest again:

Note: If a man was checked by the priest for leprosy, and the priest was not certain, then he would isolate the man seven days, and check him on the seventh day. Now if he was still not satisfied, he would isolate him for another seven days and check him again on the following seventh day. Now suppose we use inclusive reckoning and assume the priest first examines the man on the Sabbath day. If he isolates him for seven days, and examines him again on the seventh day, then the day of his first examination would be included in the count as the first day, and the seventh day would then be the day before the next Sabbath. If on this day he decides to isolate him again for another seven days, then that day before the Sabbath becomes the first day of the second count. The seventh day of the second count would now fall on the second day before the Sabbath of the following week. In the diagram below the Sabbath days are shown in yellow for clarity. The total number of days comes to only thirteen, but could be as little as just over eleven when counted as a whole period with inclusive reckoning.

Inclusive Ordinal Days1st2nd 3rd4th5th6th 7th
       1st 2nd3rd4th5st6th7th
Inclusive Cardinal Days12345 67       
 12 34567
Total Days123456 78910111213

Now look at the same situation from a righteous reckoning point of view. For the sake of simplicity again, suppose the leper was checked by the priest on the Sabbath day, during daylight hours, after midday. That day would not be included in the ordinal count, but the first day would be the first day of the week, and the seventh day would be the seventh day of the week, which would be the next Sabbath. If he had to be confined again, the first day of the second count would be the first day of the second week, and the seventh day would be the Sabbath after that. The first seven day period would end on the seventh day, and the second seventh day period would end on the following seventh day. In the diagram below the Sabbath days are marked in yellow for clarity. This is a perfectly sound way of counting the days without confusion.

Ordinal days    1st 2nd3rd4th5th 6th7th1st2nd 3rd4th5th6th 7th
Number of days 2 times 7 day arrowhead

Confirmation comes from the Septuagint where the words translated "seven days" in both places are ἑπτὰ ἡμέρας (Gtr. hepta hemeras) which are accusative case, which normally represents whole periods of time.

#5g7 Menahem Reigned Ten Years in Samaria

2 KINGS 15:17, 22-23
17 In the thirty ninth year of Azariah king of Judah began Menahem the son of Gadi to reign over Israel, and reigned ten years in Samaria.
22 And Menahem slept with his fathers; and Pekahiah his son reigned in his place.
23 In the fiftieth year of Azariah king of Judah Pekahiah the son of Menahem began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned two years.

Note: Menahem began to reign in the thirty ninth year of Azariah, and was replaced by his son in the fiftieth year of Azariah, yet he is said to have reigned only ten years. By inclusive reckoning this would come to a reign of twelve years, and the ten years recorded could have been anywhere between nine and ten years, so this is definitely not inclusive reckoning. Two other methods are both righteous reckoning, counting Azariah's thirty ninth year as Menahem's accession year. The first is that Menahem's ten year reign ended near the end of Azariah's forty ninth year, and his son Pekahiah did not begin to reign until the start of Azariah's fiftieth year. This would leave a short interregnum of a few days or weeks. The other alternative is that Menahem actually reigned more than ten years, say ten years and six months. But as we have seen before with righteous reckoning this would be rounded down, as it was with David (Example 2), and so recorded as ten years. This would allow his reign to begin in Azariah's thirty ninth year and end in his fiftieth year without error. Menahem's accession year is shaded yellow.

Regnal years of Azariah 39th40th41st42nd 43rd44th45th46th 47th48th49th50th
Inclusive Years Menahem 12345678 9101112
Righteous Years of Menahem AC1234567 891011
Reign of Menahem in Years Ten year arrowhead   
Reign of Menahem in YearsTen years six months arrowhead

#5g8 Pekahiah Reigned for Two Years in Israel

2 KINGS 15:23, 25, 27
23 In the fiftieth year of Azariah king of Judah Pekahiah the son of Menahem began to reign over Israel in Samaria, for two years.
25 But Pekah the son of Remaliah, a captain of his, conspired against him, and smote him in Samaria, in the palace of the king’s house, with Argob and Arieh, and with him fifty men of the Gileadites: and he killed him, and reigned in his place.
27 In the fifty second year of Azariah king of Judah Pekah the son of Remaliah began to reign over Israel in Samaria, for twenty years.

Note: Pekahiah began to reign in the fiftieth year of Azariah and was replaced in his fifty second year. Inclusive reckoning, counting any part of a year as a full year,  would have to count this as a three year reign, but it is recorded that  Pekahiah reigned only two years. This fits exactly with our accession year method, which is our equivalent of righteous reckoning. The fiftieth year of Azariah is counted as Pekahiah's accession year, which is shaded yellow.

Azariah's Regnal Years50th51st 52nd
Pekahiah's Regnal Years AC12
Pekahiah's Actual Years Two years arrowhead

#5g9 Conclusion on All of the Above Examples

In every case the inclusive reckoning error is refuted. It simply does not work, but the righteous reckoning method works in every case.

Reference #5g1  #5g2  #5g3  #5g4   #5g5  #5g6  #5g7  #5g8 
Inclusive reckoning?  Red cross 1   Red cross 2   Red cross 3   Red cross 4   Red cross 5   Red cross 6   Red cross 7   Red cross 8 
Righteous reckoning?  Green tick 1   Green tick 2   Green tick 3   Green tick 4   Green tick 5   Green tick 6   Green tick 7   Green tick 8 

Righteous Reckoning bible quiz Green tick

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